The Pantsir-S1 aka SA-22 Greyhound is Russian self propelled short and medium range anti-aircraft weapon developed in mid 1990s by Tula Instrument Design Bureau.
The Pantsir-S1 is the actual surface-to-air component (SAM) that consists of twin-barrel 30mm anti-aircraft automatic cannons, a 2 blocks of missile launch tubes hosting twelve 57E6 2-stage solid fuel surface-to-air missiles and an comprehensive built-in radar tracking and direction system. These integral tracking and acquisition radars make it possible to detect targets with a radar cross section of 2 sq. m at a max. range of 36 km. The missiles used in SA-22 weigh circa 72 kg and contain a 20 kg continuous-rod warhead with 5 kg of explosive components that deliver almost 3,000 of fragments from 0.9 to 2.8 gram. 57E6 rockets have a max. range of 20 km with max. altitude of 15 km. The current version of SA-22 layout has highly modular system's configuration. The whole system is placed in a standard 10 tonne container and consists of 3 crew stations in the front part, followed by an ECS module, then the turret module with the power generation package in the aft module. The turret cavity hosts the 1,400 round cartridge for the guns, mission recorders, weapon system computers as well as other hardware. It is usually mounted on an all-terrain high mobility 8 x 8 Kamaz 6560 chassis powered by 8 cylinder V-shaped Kamaz-740.63-400 turbo diesel with maximum capacity of 400 hp.
The complex was shown to public for the first time during the MAKS Air Show in 1995. It entered service with Russian armed forces only in 2010 and have been exported in small quantities to the limited number of countries mainly in the Middle East (Syria, Iran, Iraq, Oman and UAE) Algeria and Brazil. Pantsir-S1 was used in combat for the first time by the armed forces of Syria in June of 2012 when a system tracked and successfully downed RF-4E Phantom II of Turkish Army.
A number of independent experts noted that Russia is providing the Pro-Russian separatists with SA-22 complexes. Thus U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Geoffrey Pyatt noted in summer 2014 that Russia had supplied these systems to the rebels in Donbas. The first stage of the 57E6 missile, was documented in November 2014 in ARES Research Report called ‘Raising Red Flags’, which examines weapons and munitions used in the military conflict in Donbas. At the time of the report’s publication there had been no confirmed sightings of the Pantsir-S1 system. However in February 2015 the UK Ministry of Foreign Affairs published photos of them, that were taken on January 24, February 4 and February 5 in Shakhtarsk and Donetsk. UK officials said that facts mentioned above are additional strong evidences of the direct involvement of Russian authorities in the military conflict in eastern Ukraine, breaching the second Minsk agreements.